Girls drop out to school because of the high cost of living. The school is the centerpiece of the conduct of life of an individual. It is also the institution where general collective teaching is delivered to preschool and school age children. In Mali, there are two kinds of schools; Quranic School and traditional school. In Mali, the first French colonial school was born in 1886 in Kayes, capital of the first region of the country. Today, the Malian school has undergone several reforms that have marked its evolution. From 1886 to 1903, there was no unified organized system of education in West Africa Francophone. It was during the period 1903-1944 that were gradually laid the institutional foundations of a colonial education system, based on the indigenous regime.
At independence, the school system has been accepted by the government and renewed in a supranational system. But in 1962, the independent Mali proclaims one of the first reforms of the education system on the African continent. This reform should suffer changes successively in 1964 at the first national seminar in 1968 at the conference of executives, in 1978 during the second National Seminar in 1989 during the General States of Education and in 1991 during the national debate on education. Unfortunately, in most developing countries, despite all the efforts in education, girls’ enrollment has remained on the sidelines.
Despite repeated attempts, the Malian school continues to record the lowest rates of girls’ enrollment in school in the world. The 1962 reform was passed to break from the most negative aspects of education system inherited from the colonizers. Today these failed practices persist and continue to disrupt education system starting from primary all the way through higher education. But it is clear that despite increased media campaigns, the problem of young girls dropping out of schools persists. The causes are clearly known. They result from anarchic and spontaneous creation of schools with a teaching body without jurisdiction; the laxity of the school authority, the public and government face to this weakness in the system and the lack of responsibility of some parents for their children behavior. The environment also plays an important role in the lives of school age girls. According to statistics, the net rate of participation in pre-primary education for girls was 3% between 2008 and 2011; the participation in primary school for girls was 61% and 71% for boys. Gils’s participation in high school was 24% between 2007 and 2011, and 35% for boys.
The environment and social environment that the young girls attend has a direct influence on how a good student is viewed. In our campaigns, household chores imposed on girls make it difficult and stressful for girls to attend, succeed or stay in school. In addition, farm work and the search for clean water all add an unbearable burden to girls’ daily schedule and affect their ability to be a child let alone go to school. In urban areas, the causes are related to early marriages, unwanted pregnancies and poverty. These factors are forcing some girls to change the way to school voluntarily or involuntarily to meet the immediate needs of the family.
Poverty and lack of infrastructure are huge concerns for parents. Therefore, the government of Mali has made education a priority. The budget allocated to education by the Government of Mali is insufficient not only for the construction of schools to meet the demand of rural and urban populations, but also for lunch time meals and school materials. We noted other factors, such as corruption and diversion of funds dedicated to education, the lack of patriotism of some actors and the dependence of financial institutions.
Faced with this reality, urban areas are preferred by the implementation of public and private schools, while in rural areas, there is insufficient or total lack of educational facilities. Because of lack of assistance of any kind, children of these communities have to walk long distances to gain access education. There is a saying: “An empty stomach has no ear” Or a hungry person cannot hear. Due to lack of school canteens good roads to school, assault, kidnapping and or rape, parents prefer to send boys as supposed to girls for their own safety. Also, families are too poor to provide educational materials to their children.
The poverty of families is a major factor in the education of girls, for the simple reason that parents struggle to maintain the first daily food for their offspring. Therefore, can not ensure the purchase of books, notebooks, pencils, for all children, parents ensure priority studies of boys. The other reality is that such a chaotic financial situation makes it difficult for children to get access to education or basic health care. In Mali, everyone has the responsibility to face this situation that is about to weaken the pillar of our development as children’s education gives hope to family, communities and the entire nation.